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Occurrence and bioaccumulation study of PCDD and PCDF from mineral feed additives
Parera Costa, Jordi; Ábalos Navarro, Manuela; Pérez Vendrell, Anna Maria; Brufau de Barberà, Joaquim; De Juan, Francisco; Escribano, F.; Abad Holgado, Esteban; Rivera i Aranda, Josep
IRTA. Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries
Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was evaluated in sepiolite as a widely employed binder and anti-caking agent for animal feed. Also, naturally contaminated kaolinitic clay was used for comparative purposes. Since sepiolite shows remarkable adsorption properties, particular interest was paid to the extraction steps as they become critical for the final determination of these pollutants in such matrixes. Furthermore, classical Soxhlet extraction using different extracting strategies as well as acid treatment were carried out with simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction. Results obtained depended on the extraction procedure applied. Acid treatment or Soxhlet extraction using a mixture of toluene:ethanol as solvent allowed to reach the minimum requirements of recovery rates. However, Soxhlet extraction using a mixture cyclohexane:toluene as extracting solvent did not allow to comply with minimum specifications for recovery. Significant differences were obtained in TEQ units when acid treatment was applied in comparison to Soxhlet extraction. This fact can be explained because the use of drastic acid conditions allows removing strongly adsorbed analytes which can be uniquely extracted after a total destruction of the crystalline structure of sepiolite. On the contrary, Soxhlet extraction was not able to destroy the structure of sepiolite and as a consequence the PCDDs/Fs were strongly adsorbed in the internal structure of the mineral. From biological point of view the availability of these toxicants constitutes a critical aspect playing an important role in the final decision choosing particular analytical procedures. Then, acid conditions in the digestive tract should be taken into account. In this scenario, a bioaccumulation study was conducted to evaluate the transference of PCDDs/PCDFs from the sepiolite into the animal tissues when fed with feed containing sepiolite. To this end, chickens were used as a model to examine the bioavailability of PCDDs/PCDFs. Four groups of chickens were exposed through their diet to a control feed, feed with 3% w/w sepiolite as additive, feed contaminated with PCDDs/PCDFs at concentration around 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g and feed with 2% of a contaminated kaolinitic clay (460 pg TEQ/g mineral). Livers of the four studied groups were analyzed throughout the exposure period. Results of this trial showed that the performance of broilers was not affected by the presence of dioxins at levels tested, and chickens did not show any abnormal behaviour. Dioxins intentionally added to the diet were absorbed and accumulated in the liver in a significant manner, whereas the PCDDs/Fs from sepiolite were not available for chickens since livers from broilers fed 3% sepiolite presented similar WHO-TEQ values than those from broilers fed control diet.
2008-05
Dioxines -- Anàlisi
Furans
Alimentació animal
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32 p.
Article
Elsevier B.V.
         

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