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The effects of feeding Karlodinium veneficum (PLY # 103; Gymnodinium veneficum Ballantine) to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis
Galimany Sanromà, Eva; Place, Allan R.; Ramon, Montserrat; Jutson, Maria; Pipe, Richard K.
IRTA. Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries
The effects of exposure to the type species for Karlodinium veneficum (PLY # 103) on immune function and histopathology in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were investigated. Mussels from Whitsand Bay, Cornwall (UK) were exposed to K. veneficum (PLY # 103) for 3 and 6 days. Assays for immune function included total and differential cells counts, phagocytosis and release of extra cellular reactive oxygen species. Histology was carried out on digestive gland and mantle tissues. The toxin cell quota for K. veneficum (PLY #103) was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detecting two separable toxins KvTx1 (11.6 ± 5.4 ng/ml) and KvTx2 (47.7 ± 4.2 ng/ml). There were significant effects of K. veneficum exposure with increasing phagocytosis and release of reactive oxygen species following 6 days exposure. There were no significant effects on total cell counts. However, differential cell counts did show significant effects after 3 days exposure to the toxic alga. All mussels produced faeces but not pseudofaeces indicating that algae were not rejected prior to ingestion. Digestive glands showed ingestion of the algae and hemocyte infiltration after 3 days of exposure, whereas mantle tissue did not show differences between treatments. As the effects of K. veneficum were not observed in the mantle tissue it can be hypothesized that the algal concentration was not high enough, or exposure long enough, to affect all the tissues. Despite being in culture for more than 50 years the original K. veneficum isolate obtained by Mary Parke still showed toxic effects on mussels.
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26 p.
Elsevier B.V.

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